Tū Mai Iwi Tool User Guide
E NGĀ IWI, E NGĀ MANA, E NGĀ KAIMAHI O NGĀ HAU E WHĀ, TĒNĀ KOUTOU, TĒNĀ KOUTOU.
He whakatūwheratanga, he tohutohu hoki tēnei pepa i te taputapu e kiia nei ko Tū Mai Iwi. Mā te taputapu Tū Mai Iwi, ka kitea ngā tatauranga, ngā pūrongo hoki e pā ana ki te hunga mahi, ā, ka kite atu hoki i ngā whakaritenga e pā ana ki ngā iwi kotahi rau, te iwi Māori whānui, me te hapori whānui o Aotearoa.
WHAT IS THE TŪ MAI IWI TOOL?
This document provides an introduction and guide to the Tū Mai Iwi Tool. The Tū Mai Iwi information tool provides a customised profile of iwi labour market indicators that allows for analysis of about 100 individual iwi.
The Tū Mai Iwi Tool is one of a suite of online information and analysis tools provided by the Department of Labour (DoL). Other tools available can be viewed on the Department’s website: www.dol.govt.nz/services/LMI/index.asp − see Labour Market Analysis Tools.
WHAT CAN IT BE USED FOR?
The Tū Mai Iwi Tool provides iwi with ‘at the fingertips’ labour market information in one place. Bringing together data in an easily accessible way, the tool is designed to add value to iwi decision-making in policy, business, education investment and career planning. It can assist with planning, identifying current skills and informing workforce investment decisions that support the growth of human capability.
While this tool provides accessible information for all main iwi, users should note that it has not been designed for the purpose of making direct comparisons between individual iwi. Instead it provides a snapshot of the current skills and talent profile of a particular iwi. The sorts of questions an iwi might want to ask using the data are:
- What does my iwi’s age profile look like?
- What kind of skills do my iwi have?
- What kind of jobs do most of my iwi work in?
- How involved in the labour force is my iwi?
- What are the income levels for my iwi?
The updated Tū Mai Iwi tool has added data from the Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS) for all ethnicities. This data is not specific to iwi, but deals with Māori as a group in comparison to other ethnicities. However, this data will be updated every quarter, meaning that the Tū Mai Iwi tool will always have the latest HLFS data.
WHAT TYPE OF DATA DOES THE TŪ MAI IWI TOOL PROVIDE?
Using census data from 2001 and 2006 it identifies changes over a five-year time period and allows for an iwi to identify their skills and talent profile. A range of categories are available for comparison. They are:
- Demographic indicators such as age and gender
- Qualifications and Rate of Attainment
- Study Involvement and Study Completions
- Labour Market
- Total Personal Income
- Top 10 Industries and Occupations by Employment
The updated Tū Mai Iwi Tool now has broad ethnicity data from the Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS), and will be regularly updated every quarter. The data include:
- Demographic indicators such as age and gender
- Rates of youth who are Not in Education, Employment, or Training (NEET).
I WANT A CREATIVE CAREER IN AN INDUSTRY THAT COULD BENEFIT NGĀI TAHU.
Marewa Hoeta is Ngāi Tahu (Ngāi Tūāhuriri). She is currently studying towards a Diploma in Architectural Design at the Design and Arts College. Marewa was interested in pursuing a design career in a creative industry that could be of benefit to her Iwi.
By using the Tū Mai Iwi Tool, Marewa was able to build up a picture of what Ngāi Tahu tribal members are studying, have studied and where they are working. This gave her an idea of where Ngāi Tahu are well represented or are lacking in terms of qualified members and/or employed members. With this information she was able to decide what fields of study and what occupation areas aligned best to her interests and priorities and where she might be useful to Ngāi Tahu in the future.
For example the Tū Mai Iwi Tool can tell Marewa that Ngāi Tahu are currently significantly employed in the areas of business, health, hospitality, retail and trades and that, in the past, they studied to be teachers, business managers, builders and nurses. So, most Ngāi Tahu do not work in the creative occupations. However, when Marewa looked at the numbers with qualifications in architecture she saw that while less than 10% were Māori, of the 834 Māori Ngāi Tahu was well represented at 12%. Because Marewa was keen to follow a creative career path in an industry that was on the move for her people and that had the potential to benefit the tribe in the future using the Tū Mai Iwi Tool made her decision easy.
Tū Mai Iwi shows Marewa that study is important to Ngāi Tahu people, with a high percentage of Ngāi Tahu studying full-time (13%) compared to all New Zealanders (9.5%). Marewa can also see that 12 Ngāi Tahu completed architecture qualifications in 2005 and 2006.
I WANT TO KNOW HOW MANY NGĀI TAHU ARE CURRENTLY WORKING AND/OR TRAINED IN MY AREA OF BUSINESS.
Scott Shadbolt is Ngāi Tahu from Taumutu and Moeraki, he owns and runs his own building company.
Scott is committed to helping Ngāi Tahu become tradespeople and to developing Ngāi Tahu building businesses. Scott is also interested in finding out about industry growth and occupation salaries.
Scott can see, using the Skills Investment and Occupational Indicator tools, that in the Canterbury region during 2006, the industry employed 6,930 people with an average wage of $39,300 for carpenters/joiners and an average wage of $32,500 for a builder’s labourer. Although demand may vary in the future the evidence suggests the level of training you have impacts on the income you earn. These 2006 wages are a relative indicator – wages are likely to vary depending on demand for construction services and supply of skilled staff.
What the Tū Mai Iwi Tool can add to this picture is the number of skilled/qualified Ngāi Tahu available in the construction industry. Looking at the Tū Mai Iwi Tool Scott can see that 969 Ngāi Tahu are employed in construction and 690 Ngāi Tahu have studied building trades as their highest qualification. Recent graduates (over the two years 2005 and 2006) include nine Ngāi Tahu who have completed building training with a tertiary education provider below L4 and 21 who have completed training above L4.
This suggests there may be at least 280 Ngāi Tahu in the industry (without building as their highest qualification) who might want to access industry training. In addition, the tool shows that employment growth among Ngāi Tahu in this industry was 84% between 2001 and 2006 – a very rapid rate of growth that also suggests industry training has probably not kept up with demand growth.
The relatively high levels of workers already in these occupations with no post-school qualifications suggests that if Scott worked with the relevant agencies to upskill his labourers on the job this would improve both their income and the supply of talented staff for his business. Upskilling individual iwi members, is likely to improve whānau income and support wider iwi resilience.
I WANT TO BE ABLE TO RESPOND QUICKLY (AND EASILY) TO MY BOARD’S REQUEST FOR A REPORT ON PROGRESS FOR THE NGĀI TAHU WORKFORCE AND WHICH SKILLS ARE UNDER REPRESENTED.
David O’Connell is the General Manager of Tribal Services for Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu.
He wants to be able to provide a workforce profile report to his Board to indicate areas of progress over a five year period and help them decide if/where there is a need to build iwi capacity. “Are there connections between investing in a skilled workforce and overall iwi capacity?”
The Tū Mai Iwi Tool can provide a profile report on current labour market indicators (including training trends and patterns). The iwi can then compare the current workforce and trainee profile with the workforce profile they had five years ago. They can also develop the preferred profile of skills and capacity they wish to have in 5, 10 or 15 years and develop action plans to achieve the preferred profile. A preferred profile may depend on growth industries or key iwi industries which are influenced by the same trends that impact on other businesses such as skills and training issues and attracting and retaining talented staff.
|Ngāi Tahu Workforce Profile|
|Age||The biggest growth since 2001 (48%) is in the 55+ age group (which suggests possible issues around housing and health care?). The growth in the Ngāi Tahu population aged 55+ is faster than the growth for all Māori aged 55+ (and faster than the New Zealand wide increase). However, the age profile among Ngāi Tahu is much younger than the age profile for New Zealand as a whole. (82% of Ngāi Tahu adults are under 55, compared with 71% of all New Zealanders).|
|Location||Most Ngāi Tahu live in Canterbury but nearly a quarter live in either Auckland or Wellington. The region with the fastest growth among Ngāi Tahu is actually Auckland! Does this suggest delivery to/with Ngāi Tahu should include these locations?|
|Fields of Study||56% of Ngāi Tahu have no post-school qualifications although 12% have a degree or higher compared to 7% of all Māori. 18% of Ngāi Tahu are studying full-time compared to 9.5% of all New Zealanders. So Ngāi Tahu have a good foundation base of qualified people and a relatively high proportion of Ngāi Tahu are studying. The top 4 FOS in the 2006 Census were teaching management, building and nursing.|
|Industries and Occupations||There is a connection between the study Ngāi Tahu have done in the past and the jobs they do today. The 3 top industries where Ngāi Tahu work are in business services (typically as managers); in education as teachers; and in the health services as nurses.|
|05-06 Completions L1-3||Recent foundation level graduates are choosing to study different skills sets. The 05-06 top 4 FOS completed at tertiary institutions are human society, automotive engineers, language+literature, business and management.|
|05-06 Completions L4+ (higher qualifications)||There is also a difference at the higher levels of qualifications. The 05-06 FOS top 4 are language+literature; business and management; teaching; society and culture. The recent media comment that Māori are not enrolling for nursing training is also confirmed by these figures – nursing is no longer one of the top areas of study for recent Ngāi Tahu graduates. If we drill down into the figures a little more, the tool shows that out of 626 Māori who completed Nursing Studies recently, 43 (6%) were Ngāi Tahu. This level of data is available for all the study options that Ngāi Tahu are taking. Getting down to this level of detail enables planning about whether current training trends match the desired skill profile of the workforce in 5, 10 or 15 years from now. This helps answer questions such as where do we target scholarship and internships to focus the development of the future iwi workforce?|
|Participation and Income||76% of Ngāi Tahu work fulltime (1% less than all New Zealanders) and 30% earn over $30,000 (about the same as all New Zealanders). Ngāi Tahu have a pattern of employment and a level of income which is reasonably close to that of all New Zealanders.|
WHO MIGHT USE THE DATA PROVIDED IN TŪ MAI IWI?
- Students choosing careers
- Iwi development planners
- Business people interested in their Māori workforce
- Careers Advisors
- Training providers wanting to be responsive to Māori training needs
HOW DO YOU ACCESS IT?
To view the Tū Mai Iwi Tool data go to: www.dol.govt.nz/services/LMI/index.asp then click on the link under Labour Market Analysis Tools.
This website also contains links to other tools developed by the DoL that the user can access for further contextual information about regions, industries and occupations. More detail about these tools is contained in Annex 1.
The following section outlines some of the questions that could be answered by each section of information contained in the tool.
Q. What areas of study is an iwi strongest/weakest in?
A. Select the Top 5 Field of Study sheet to see the most common study areas for the iwi population. You can also scroll down the Main Menu tab for more detail about every field of study if you need further detail.
This information helps identify study areas that can then be compared with areas where an iwi has commercial and or other strengths/weaknesses. If not, which areas can be re-focused with scholarships or provision of study and career advice to encourage choices in areas considered to be important to an iwi.
Q. How highly qualified is a particular iwi compared to the wider population?
A. Select the Qualifications sheet and compare the proportion in each category for a particular iwi with all Māori and the wider NZ population.
This information helps compare qualifications for your iwi with all Māori and the wider NZ population. Raising qualifications is one way of lifting living standards.
Q. What is my iwi’s age profile?
A. Look at the Age sheet and compare the percentage in each age category for your iwi with Māori and the wider NZ population.
This information helps with investment decisions about new infrastructure, delivery mechanisms, support systems, and new courses.
Q. What jobs do most members of a particular Iwi work in?
A. Select the Occupation sheet and view the list of the main occupations.
This information can be used to guide career choices into higher paying work and higher skill requirements (which tend to have more resilience to economic downturns).
Q. What occupation experienced the fastest growth in share between 2001 and 2006?
A. Select the Occupation sheet and view the percentage point change column.
This shows the changing share of an iwi’s employment in certain occupations. This can help determine the progress being made by each iwi and how this compares relative to other iwi. For example, the data for Ngāi Tahu shows corporate managers had the fastest growth in share of all broad occupation groups between 2001 and 2006 (1.9 percentage points). Interestingly, this is the same percentage point increase as for all Māori.
Q. How involved in the labour force is an iwi?
A. Select the Menu sheet to see participation rate for an iwi.
Knowing the labour force participation rate informs decisions about employment and training delivery mechanisms − if most members of an iwi are in work then to lift skill levels will require influencing Industry Training Organisations (ITO’s) and offering more part-time study options.
Q. What are the number and type of graduates in my iwi?
A. Select the Field of Study Completions 4+ sheet to see the quantity and type of tertiary level attainments over the past year for an iwi. (The full breakdown of completions by study area is contained in the Main menu).
Knowledge of the quantity and the nature of tertiary investment already occurring in an iwi will help to identify whether more focus is needed on lifting tertiary training.
Q. What are the income levels for an iwi?
A. Select the Employment and Income sheet to view average, median and the proportion earning over $30,000.
Census definitions of income from all sources can provide a proxy for the relative level of material disadvantage faced by an iwi, and an indication of the quality as well as the level of labour force participation.
HOW CAN I OPERATE THE TOOL?
The Tū Mai Iwi Tool contains one main worksheet (the tab called Menu) that allows the selection of an iwi from a drop-down menu (there are 92 smaller and 12 larger iwi shown). Having selected an iwi, the user can view a broad “profile” of labour market characteristics and click on any of the 12 different dimensions for a more detailed view (see Annex 1 for a full description of the information available within each of the 12 dimensions).
You can select each dimension by clicking on the headings in the green boxes or by clicking in the tabs at the bottom of the screen.
Within each of the 12 dimension sheets is a heading called "Back To Main Menu" that allows the user to return to the main menu. The relevant dimensions can be explored by clicking on their title box which will take you directly to the relevant page.
If you want to "drill down" and view all the data for an iwi, go to the main menu and click the heading ''To view all variables". This takes you to a sheet listing all details of a particular iwi, such as the actual number reporting qualifications in each Field of Study.
The tool also includes a Technical Notes and Data Sources sheet.
An example of the front page for the Ngāi Tahu/Waitaha/Ngāti Mamoe iwi is shown below:
Click on any of the 12 headings listed under “Select a Variable” box. Each one has a link to another sheet that provides details of that dimension. For example, selecting the “Age” link will generate the following screen;
This example will then show that there are:
- 8,913 young persons (15-24) in this iwi.
- Numbers of 15-24 year olds have risen 25.4% between 2001 and 2006.
- This increase is faster than the increase for young Māori or all young New Zealanders (10.2% and 13.1% respectively over the same period).
- The graphs offer an “at a glance” picture of the age distribution of this iwi compared with the age distribution overall, and the growth in this iwi compared to overall growth.
This is just one example of the 12 dimensions in which characteristics and trends of an iwi can be compared with all Māori and the wider New Zealand population.
Definitions and information of sources for this data are reported in Annex 1.
CAVEATS AND CAUTIONS
- The data is good for gaining an overview of broad labour market trends of an iwi compared with all Māori and the wider population. The tool is not recommended as the sole source for use in highly detailed planning. For example, the tool alone cannot tell the exact number of new architects that an iwi should be training.
- As much of the data comes from the census, it is based on self-reporting. The data is therefore subject to reporting errors, in particular regarding the industry but also the occupation of employment.
- The data captures all iwi that a respondent indicates on his or her census form therefore an individual may show up in the data set for more than one iwi.
- The tool incorporates Ministry of Education data sourced from tertiary institutions. It does not yet include data from ITO's.
KEY DIMENSIONS IN THE TOOL
|Labour Market||Population Census|
|Field of study||Population Census|
|Tertiary education completions by field of study||MOE administrative dataset|
WHAT DOES EACH DIMENSION COVER?
Labour market dimensions of an Iwi are explored in the main menu. Do they face relatively high unemployment, a high proportion working part-time, low levels of participation in the labour force? The labour market has improved considerably between 2001 and 2006. Has an iwi shared in this improvement?
Age and gender
This shows the basic demographics of an iwi, and whether it has a younger or older age profile than the average for all Māori or the New Zealand population.
Top 5 Field of Study
This shows the most common fields of study for members of an iwi who have completed post-school qualifications, bearing in mind these are the highest or most important fields of study. It offers a broad indication of the type of skills being developed within an iwi. It may, for example, indicate that there could be relatively few members of an Iwi specialising in tourism studies as opposed to those who are qualified in the arts and humanities. It is then possible to consider the number of recent graduates among an iwi to see whether this picture may be changing in the future (see Top 5 study Completions below). The results can also be compared with data on iwi business and/or growth industries.
This can help when thinking about the kinds of skills barriers an iwi might be facing. Are they well qualified relative to all Māori or the wider New Zealand population?
- No Qualifications = no qualifications.
- School Qualifications = other school qualifications, Fifth form and Sixth form qualifications and higher school qualifications.
- Post-School = basic, intermediate and skilled vocational qualifications below degree level.
- Degree or Higher = bachelors degree or higher.
The census asks whether people are currently studying (although not what they are studying). This gives a useful gauge of the degree to which people are engaged in upskilling. At an iwi level, this will show whether members are studying more or less than Māori as a whole and the wider population. Additional educational resources may be considered if it is identified that an iwi has a particularly low proportion of members studying (especially if it is already a relatively youthful and low qualified population).
These figures identify the regions where an iwi is most concentrated in. Over time, iwi have become more dispersed across New Zealand, as they move away from their traditional tribal areas in search of job and other opportunities. Looking at the main regions can help identify which parts of New Zealand they are predominantly located in when planning programmes and courses targeted at members of a particular iwi.
Total Personal Income
Total personal income from all sources is shown in terms of the average, the median and the proportion earning below $30,000.
The average is the total income earned by all members of an iwi divided by the number of working people in this iwi.
The median is the level of income earned by the member of an iwi that has 50% of all iwi members earning more and 50% earning less. Income is measured to include all sources (including rents and dividends) for people working in the iwi.
How is this useful?
- A bigger gap between the median and average income suggests an Iwi with a wide range of incomes – i.e. some highly paid people, and some less well-paid people.
- A high proportion of people earning less than $30,000 gives an indication of a relatively poor income distribution of an iwi.
Top 10 Industries of Employment
These figures help identify the key industries of importance for an iwi and how much the concentration in certain industries is changing over time, compared with other Māori and all ethnic groups.
There are other tools available which profile industries in more depth: (See Annex 1).
Top 10 Occupations of Employment
These figures can help identify the same information as for industries but at a broad occupational level.
There are other tools available which profile occupations in more depth: (See Annex 1).
Top 5 Field of Study Completions
This uses Ministry of Education (as opposed to census) data to identify flows of people completing qualifications at tertiary institutions, as well as the type of study (field of study information) over a particular period (see Annex 1 for further details). The categories used are ‘completions at level 1-3’ (which is generally below tertiary qualification level) and ‘completions at level 4 and above’ (covering most trade certificate and degree level courses).
How is this useful?
This gives a more timely (updatable every year) indication of the possible number of skilled people who may be coming into the workforce. It shows both the level and type of their skills. It provides an indicator, for example, of gaps in labour supply if an iwi wants to develop a more highly skilled workforce in a particular occupation or industry.
Rate of Attainment of Qualifications
This section shows the annual number of completions relative to the size of the iwi. This is a measure of relative progress for an iwi towards achieving more graduates.
Annex 1: Technical information
Why does the tool use census data?
The population census is a five yearly summary of many characteristics of the population in New Zealand. It provides the most effective and reliable picture of labour market characteristics of Māori at an iwi level in New Zealand. Māori are identifiable down to about 100 different iwi, using the official Statistics New Zealand Classification of Iwi.
Information about the classification of Iwi
The tool’s basic unit of data is the iwi, so it is important to understand how this is defined. Iwi is the focal economic and political unit of the traditional Māori descent and kinship based hierarchy which follows in descending order: Waka (founding canoe)- iwi (tribe)- hapū (sub-tribe)- whānau (family).
This Tool uses the Statistics New Zealand Standard Classification of Iwi. The list of iwi used in the tool is current as at 2006, with only very minor changes between 2001 and 2006. The Statistics New Zealand Classification Criteria for iwi is as follows:
- It uses a hierarchical classification with two levels (two digit and four digit). The first level represents Iwi region (rohe) and has eleven categories. It should be used for summary purposes only, and does not imply any future or present confederation of Iwi.
- The second level shows individual Iwi and has over 80 categories.
- The Level 1 categories represent specific regions, while the Level 2 categories represent specific iwi (plus there are several codes for people who do not know their iwi or do not wish to respond to the question).
The census permits an individual to list up to six iwi. For more details see: http://www2.stats.govt.nz/
This means that some individuals will appear in more than one iwi.
Māori are identifiable down to about 100 different iwi in the tool using the official Statistics New Zealand Classification of Iwi. However, for the purposes of this tool, the classification has been amended in the following ways;
- All iwi with a census population of fewer than 500 persons aged 15+ have not been separately identified, as numbers may be too small to be statistically robust. As a result 28 ‘Level 2’ Iwi with a population fewer than 500 persons aged 15+ on census night 2006 are not identified in this tool, comprising about 2% of all Māori. Māori who identified with this iwi are still included in the total figure for all Māori.
- A separate category is included for those whose iwi is not known or incompletely specified. This category includes; Iwi Not Named, but Waka or Iwi Confederation Known, Unspecified Region, Hapū Affiliated to More Than One Iwi, Don't Know, Outside Scope, Unidentifiable and Not Stated. The sizeable group of Māori without an identified iwi can therefore be analysed as a separate entity.
The Ngāi Tahu grouping is represented by a customised grouping of three, 4-digit iwi;
- Ngāi Tahu/Kāi Tahu (code 1109)
- Waitaha (Te Waipounamu) (code 1112)
- Kāti Mamoe (code 1104)
The Ministry of Education also uses the Statistics New Zealand Standard Classification of Iwi in its administrative collections (as shown in the last three dimensions of this tool). Tertiary providers have been required to provide iwi affiliation of all first year Māori students since 2002. An individual is permitted to list up to three iwi, (compared with up to six in the census) therefore the Ministry of Education administrative data will undercount those who specify many iwi.
The following information is available to provide users with a detailed explanation of the source of the information this tool contains.